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    Aristotelianism is an ancient ideology and philosophy developed by Greek philosopher, Aristotle during the Classical period. Aristotelianism had a significant influence over European philosophy throughout history.

    Philosophical Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Immanent Realism[edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism's teacher Platonism argues that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property or a relation to other things. When one looks at an apple, for example, one sees an apple, and one can also analyse a form of an apple. In this distinction, there is a particular apple and a universal form of an apple. Moreover, one can place an apple next to a book, so that one can speak of both the book and apple as being next to each other. Platonism argues that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things. For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but "good" is still a proper universal form. Aristotelianism disagrees with Platonism on this point, arguing that all universals are instantiated at some period of time, and that there are no universals that are unattached to existing things. In addition, Aristotelianism disagrees with Platonism about the location of universals. Where Platonism speaks of the world of forms, a place where all universal forms subsist, Aristotelianism maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each universal is predicated. So, according to Aristotelianism, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.

    Five Elements[edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism believes that the world is made out of 5 elements, to the 4 of them - Earth, Water, Fire and Air that were already proposed by philosopher Empedocles. He adds the fifth heavenly element of "Aether" that he believes evenly distributed in every corner of the universe and is what the heavenly spheres and stars are made of.

    Four Causes[edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism believes that the reason of coming about of all things can be attributed to 4 simultaneously active causes. Notably the "cause" should be understood in the context of explanation "how" does something exist and what makes it the thing it is rather than just explaining its purpose.

    1. Material Cause - Describes the material out of which something is composed.
    2. Formal Cause - Describes the arrangement of matter that gives specific form to it.
    3. Efficient Cause - Describes how does something function and how it came to be.
    4. Final Cause - Describes the purpose of something, why something exists or is done.

    Three Aristotelian Virtues[edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism believes in 3 virtues people should practice to become a better person and create a better society.

    1. Phronesis - Wisdom, understood as the ability to learn, think from different perspectives, understand right and wrong and be able to put knowledge into practice.
    2. Dikaiosyne - Justice, understood as giving credit where credit's due.
    3. Philia - Friendship, understood as practice of trust, love and forming bonds with other people.

    Continuous Theory of Matter[edit | edit source]

    Continuous Theory of Matter is a concept that states that all matter is a continuous, unbroken blob that can be infinitely divided. It opposes the modern conventionalist theory of atoms and molecules and was the prevalent thought in the distant past.

    Political Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Nomos and Thesis[edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism believes in existence of certain universal laws of nature called Nomos, those are timeless, cosmic and unchangeable laws that rule the universe, for example the fact that human is a social being is one of such natural laws. Thesis is the name that Aristotelianism gives to man-made laws, those are laws that are not universal, they only apply to certain groups of people (like people living on certain territory) and can be changed. Aristotelianism believes that to create a good law system, Thesis cannot contradict Nomos.

    The State and its Development [edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism believes that the purpose of the state should be the welfare and happiness of its citizens. The state itself is a community of autonomous individuals created exactly for that purpose. Since the state is a an institution made to create happiness for its citizens, Aristotelianism believes that those who live outside of it and have no homeland of their own are pitiable. In Aristotelenian thought, community develops through 3 stages.

    1. Oikos - The family farm. The family and their farm forms the foundation of society, within family human beings are socialized and form oiko-nomia - the laws that regulate relations between parents and children. When several Oikos gather to live in one place, the next stage of community begins.
    2. Kome - Community of families. Several families living closely will form a community, such community to survive must develop a common feeling of trust, purpose and identity. If Kome succeeds in creating those, it will be able to enter the final stage of community.
    3. Polis - Polis is the final stage of community's development. With that the community is able to become political in nature and form governmental and advanced social structures.

    Virtuous and Corrupted Forms of Government [edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism believes that we can pinpoint 3 types of governance, as well as distinguish virtuous and corrupted forms of each of those. Type of government where political power is focused in the hands of one person is called a Monarchy. The corrupted form of Monarchy is Tyranny, where ruler leads with fear and threat rather than wisdom and justice Type of government where political power lies in the hands of several powerful individuals is called Aristocracy. The corrupted form of Aristocracy is Oligarchy, where the ruling group focuses only on gaining and sustaining their power and wealth, rather than serving its people.

    Type of government where political power lies in the hands of common citizens that debate over issues and together make decisions Aristotelianism calls a Politeia. The corrupted version of Politeia Aristotelianism calls a Democracy. (Although it is important to note that Aristotle's definition of Democracy is more in line with our definition of Ochlocracy).

    The Politeia [edit | edit source]

    The Politeia in Aristotelianism's view is the perfect form of government, where power belongs to the people, but doesn't turn into a blind mob rule. Aristotelianism points out several characteristics that define a Politeia, those are:

    1. All public offices are chosen by all citizens.
    2. Everyone rules over everyone.
    3. Public offices are chosen by lottery among citizens. Citizen can serve the same function for maximum of 2 terms.
    4. Citizens can serve in political positions regardless of their wealth.
    5. Terms of serving in office are short, with the exception of positions that take care of military matters.
    6. Any citizen can become a judge and they are elected by popular voting.

    Additionally Aristotelianism believes in 3 rights that must be guaranteed to citizens in Politeia.

    1. Isonomia - Equality before the law for all citizens.
    2. Isegoria - Freedom of speech. All citizens need to have the right to publicly voice their opinions and beliefs in relation to state's issues. Only in this way, through public dialogue of citizens, good decisions can be made by the common people.
    3. Isotimia - Freedom to serve in public office. All citizens must be guaranteed with right to apply for public office and serve their state, regardless of their wealth or family heritage.

    Finally Aristotelian Politeia would also entail 2 activities that are needed for the continuous survival of it.

    1. Paideia - Form of education that would raise citizens in the spirit of Politeia's values since childhood, creating a civic culture and identity that lies at the foundation of Polis.
    2. Dokimasia - Form of controlling the governing leaders, regularly investigating whether they properly fulfill their duties or not.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Alexanderism[edit | edit source]

    Alexanderism is a philosophical thought of Alexander the Great.

    Magnaura School[edit | edit source]

    Magnaura School is a major philosophical school in Byzantine Empire.

    Al-Kindism[edit | edit source]

    Avempaceanism[edit | edit source]

    Avempaceanism is the philosophy of Zaragozan physician Avempace. Avempaceanism defends absolute knowledge and contemplation as the ideal state of humanity, and its works are credited for spreading the Arab-Aristotelian synthesis to Europe.

    Avempace's metaphysics do not differ too greatly from Aristotle's, other than some departures from his astronomy related to Plotemy's discoveries that he developed alongside Maimonides. On the other hand, Avempace's metaphysics build a completely new model of virtue ethics.

    Avempace categorised humanity by its levels of knowlegde: the lowest strata was that of the great mass, essentially all who can only claim certainty of material reality, which is singular and subject to the passing of time and the constraints of space. Through education, some of the great mass can become " Men of Reason" scientific humans with the ability of abstraction. Men of Reason who subject themselves to the '' Regime of the Lonely" (the first historical proposition of non-cynical ascetic life) achieve the superior level, reserved for beings of pure contemplation who are given the capacity to observe spiritual beings by the Agent Intellect", an intermediary between God and mankind.

    Because this genealogy of knowledge ends in supreme, transcendental wisdom, Avempace contradicts the traditional teaching of the Qur'an by saying that absolute happiness lies not in Heaven but in ''this world'', and establishes that it is virtuous to pursue absolute joy and the loss of individuality on Earth to unite with Allah. From Avempaceanism's ethics derives a political philosophy in the mirror image of Plato's Republic wherein the governor must mirror within his government the wisdom that guided Allah's creation of the whole universe to guide the governed towards a new civil society of Truth, Virtue and Love. Since politics is as corrupt as the material, sub-lunar world, it is the good governor's imperative to first alienate oneself from society as an individual before returning to bring society closer to perception.

    Personality[edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism is a very optimistic and social ball. He loves teaching others about his beliefs and debating philosophical ideas. He also enjoys spending time and partying with his friends. He dislikes ascetism, in his opinion people should live their life as happily as possible, as long as it doesn't come at the expense of others.

    How to Draw[edit | edit source]

    Aristotelianism, bearded.
    1. Draw a ball
    2. Color it with white
    3. Draw a black Greek letter phi (Φ) in the middle
    4. Add the two eyes
    5. (Optional) Add a puffy grey beard, and smaller dark grey mustache on the ball


    Color Name HEX RGB
    White #F5F5F5 245, 245, 245
    Black #141414 20, 20, 20
    Grey #C3C3C3 195, 195, 195
    Dark Grey #7F7F7F 127, 127, 127

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    • Altruism - The state exists for the welfare and happiness of its citizens, you are correct my friend.
    • Stoicism - A good and virtuous friend, but sometimes too stiff.
    • Thomism - I hear that you find my writings very inspirational.
    • Skepticism - "Be a free thinker and don't accept everything you hear as truth. Be critical and evaluate what you believe in."

    Frenemies[edit | edit source]

    • Platonism - My teacher, I respect you, but we disagree on almost everything.
    • Hedonism - Let's have a toast! Just don't overdo it.

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Gallery[edit | edit source]

    Portraits[edit | edit source]

    Comics and Artwork[edit | edit source]

    Quotes[edit | edit source]

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

    Theorists[edit | edit source]

    Columns[edit | edit source]

    Literature[edit | edit source]


    Navigation[edit | edit source]

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