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    Kantianism represents the ideas of the late 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. Central to Kantianism is the rigorous exploration of the limits of human knowledge with the hope of raising philosophy to the level of a science in some sense similar to mathematics and physics. Kantianism is opposed to Dogmatism, to expansive Speculative Naturalism (such as that of Spinozism), and, usually, to Irrationalism.

    Philosophical Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Epistemology and Metaphysics[edit | edit source]

    Kant's Epistemology and Metaphysics are infamously complex, so this will be a brief overview. Kant made the claim that there are three main categories through which we experience the world, Intuition, Understanding, and Reason. Intuition is sensory impressions that are given to us by objects outside our understanding. Reason is what allows us to make logical destination's based of these sensory impressions. Understanding is the facility that allows us to comprehend things without having to infer them from intuition.

    According to Kant, there are certain intuitions like time and space which are indispensable to how we experience the world. They must exist a priori, or before we experience anything. But all intuitions must exist from empirical experience. Therefore, Kant argues that what we experience in the world is not the world it's self, but merely an impression of it. Therefore, what we experience Kant be the world as it is in and of it's self. Kant calls the world as it is in and of its self "Numina" and the world as we experience it "Phenomena." So then what is this "Numina" like? Who the hell knows. This leads Kant to his view of Transcendental Idealism, basically the view that, although all are ideas stem from reality, the world as it is in and of it's self remains unknowable.

    Ethics[edit | edit source]

    The basis of Kant's ethics is that we should always act in such a way that could be made a universal law. From this, he derives that we should never use people as an means, but always as an ends in themselves. For Kant, this goes even if using someone as an ends will help prevent a greater harm to even more people.

    Mathematics[edit | edit source]

    According to Kant, mathematics possesses objective validity because it expresses the necessary conditions of possible experience. Arithmetic, as an example, is grounded in the necessary conditions of possible experience and provides a priori cognition of objects with regard to their form. Kant believes that mathematics is a suitable tool for describing nature, but it encounters certain philosophical challenges. One such challenge arises from the notion that if something is composite, there must also exist something simple. This contradicts the concept of infinite divisibility of space, as it suggests that there are indivisible elements (atoms or monads) that constitute the universe. Kant addresses this issue by proposing that appearances are not things in themselves and that philosophical reasoning based solely on concepts would not be valid for appearances.

    Another issue Kant discusses is the question of infinitely small magnitudes in mathematics. While some philosophers argue for the existence of atoms or monads, Kant separates the concepts of infinite divisibility and infinitely small magnitudes. He considers infinitely small magnitudes as necessary ideas to express changes caused by fundamental forces and the construction of intuition. Regarding the method of mathematics, Kant argues that it differs from the method of philosophy. Mathematics is capable of producing definitions in a strict sense and is considered a paradigm of synthetic cognition a priori. It uses concepts in concreto, starting with definitions and containing few unprovable propositions. Philosophy, on the other hand, analyzes data and deals with concepts in abstracto.

    Kant illustrates the distinction between mathematics and philosophy through the discussion of the definition of a circle. The standard definition, which states that a circle is a figure with each point equidistant from a given center, does not prove its possibility. Kant proposes a genetic definition that demonstrates the constructability of a circle. According to Kant, mastering a mathematical concept means understanding the rule of construction of the object of the concept.

    Political Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Kant argued that in order to maintain human freedom, we must all seek a society in which it is possible to live free and rational lives. He called this state a Rechtsstaat, or a Republic governed by law. The sole purpose of this state was to maximize the possibility of human autonomy.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Deontology[edit | edit source]

    Critical Philosophy[edit | edit source]

    The Critical Philosophy movement, attributed to Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), sees the primary task of philosophy as criticism rather than justification of knowledge. Criticism, for Kant, meant judging as to the possibilities of knowledge before advancing to knowledge itself. The basic task of philosophers, according to this view, is not to establish and demonstrate theories about reality, but rather to subject all theories—including those about philosophy itself—to critical review, and measure their validity by how well they withstand criticism.

    Transcendental Idealism[edit | edit source]

    Transcendental Idealism posits that the mind plays an active role in shaping our experience of reality. According to Kantianism, our knowledge is not a passive reflection of an objective external world, but rather the result of the interaction between sensory experience and the mind's inherent structures and concepts.

    Kant distinguishes between the "phenomenal" and the "noumenal" realms. The phenomenal realm refers to the world of appearances that we perceive and interact with through our senses. This world is structured and organized by the mind through its innate categories of understanding, such as space, time, causality, and substance. These categories are not derived from experience but are inherent in the human mind and serve as the framework for organizing and interpreting sensory data.

    Neo-Kantianism[edit | edit source]

    Neo-Kantianism emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a response to the rise of scientific positivism and naturalism. Neo-Kantians sought to revitalize and reinterpret Kant's philosophy in light of the challenges posed by the natural sciences. They aimed to reconcile Kant's transcendental idealism with scientific knowledge and to develop a systematic and rigorous philosophical framework. Notable Neo-Kantian philosophers include Hermann Lotze, Wilhelm Windelband, Heinrich Rickert, and especially the Marburg School, led by Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp.

    Post-Neo-Kantianism[edit | edit source]

    Renewed interest in Hegel's philosophy[edit | edit source]

    Post-neo-Kantianism acknowledges the differences between Kant's philosophy and Hegel's idealism while seeking to build upon Kantian ideas. There is a trend towards finding positive aspects in Hegel's philosophy, aiming to integrate his historical and dialectical methods with Kant's system of critical idealism.

    Renewed interest in the system within philosophy[edit | edit source]

    While systemic structures in philosophy faced criticism from various philosophical movements and postmodernism, post-neo-Kantianism recognizes the importance of systemic structures. However, it redefines the understanding of the system by emphasizing the role of the subject and the infinity of experience.

    Reliance on the methodological framework (Logicism)[edit | edit source]

    Post-neo-Kantian philosophy utilizes a methodological framework known as logicism, which seeks to complete the Kantian project of metaphysics as a science. This involves the concept of correlation, the principle of mediation, and the exploration of a priori concepts such as subjectivity.

    Radical Anti-Ontology[edit | edit source]

    Post-neo-Kantianism aims to develop and finalize the Kantian notion of scientific metaphysics. It distinguishes itself from Neo-Kantianism by presenting a more apparent realism concerning objective being and empirical subject. It rejects the idea that Heidegger's fundamental ontology or Hartmann's new ontology align with Kant's transcendentalism.

    Baden School[edit | edit source]

    Baden School is a neo-kantian school of thought active in 1890-1930 in three main universities at Heidelberg, Freiburg and Strasbourg. The main initiators of the school are Wilhelm Windelband and Heinrich Rickert.

    Marburg School[edit | edit source]

    Marburg School is a philosophical school originating from Marburg.

    Weberism[edit | edit source]

    Weberism is the philosophy of Max Weber, one of the three "fathers of Sociology" alongside Karl Marx and Émile Durkheim.

    Post-Kantianism[edit | edit source]

    Post-Kantianism refers to the period of German Idealists that emerged after Kant.

    How to draw[edit | edit source]

    1. Draw a ball
    2. Color it black
    3. Draw a golden Greek capital latter "phi" (Φ) in the middle
    4. Fill the left side of phi with white
    5. Add the two eyes

    You are done!

    Color Name HEX RGB
    Black #2A2A2A 42, 42, 42
    Gold #FFC90E 255, 201, 14
    White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    • Enlightenment - "Have courage to use your own reason! This is the motto of Enlightenment!"
    • Moral Universalism - “Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”
    • Rationalism - I wrote the Critique of Pure Reason to study your metaphysics.
    • Rousseauism - "I am an investigator by inclination... There was a time when I thought that all this could constitute the honor of humanity, and I despised the mob... Rousseau set me straight. This dazzling excellence vanishes; I... would consider myself much less useful than common laborers if I did not believe that this consideration could give all the others a value, to establish the rights of humanity."
    • Humeanism - It was from you who first awoke me form my dogmatic slumber.
    • Lockeanism - I like your social contract. Just make sure there isn't too much democracy, okay?

    Frenemies[edit | edit source]

    • Hobbesianism - I agree that we need to seek a social contract, but why aren't you trying to maximize liberty? And stop being so selfish!

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    • Utilitarianism - So what, if murdering babies makes people happy that makes it okay? Happiness isn't a valid biases for morality!
      • - I don't advocate unnecessary avoidable sacrifice you idiot.
    • Hedonism - Good God! This is even worse!
    • Egoism - Stop being so selfish!

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