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    “Man cannot endure his own littleness unless he can translate it into meaningfulness on the largest possible level.”

    – Ernest Becker, 1973, The Denial of Death, p. 196

    Existentialism is a diverse set of philosophies that places value on concrete human experience over abstract thinking and highlights the importance of personal choice and commitment. At the core of existentialism is the idea that existence precedes essence. This means that individuals are not born with predetermined purposes or essential natures, but rather they define themselves and give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions. Existentialists reject the notion of a fixed human nature or a predetermined destiny, thus usually criticizing Rationalism and Positivism for their claims that humanity can be understood objectively.

    Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Existence Precedes Essence[edit | edit source]

    The core idea of existentialism is that existence comes before essence. This challenges the traditional view that the nature or essence of something is fixed and fundamental, existing independently of its actual existence. Existentialists argue that human beings define their own values and give meaning to their lives through their consciousness, as they lack inherent identity or value. This identity and meaning must be actively created by each individual through their choices and actions, which ultimately shape the significance of their existence.

    Absurd[edit | edit source]

    Main article: Absurdism

    The idea of the absurd suggests that life has no inherent meaning, and any meaning we find is created by us. This concept challenges traditional religious beliefs, which say that life's purpose is to fulfill divine commandments. Living with the absurd means accepting that life has no predefined meaning, as Albert Camus argues. Absurdity arises from the clash between human beings and the world they inhabit.

    Another view, by Søren Kierkegaard, suggests that absurdity arises from the actions and choices of humans, which defy external justification. In the face of the absurd, there's no guarantee that bad things won't happen to good people. Life's unpredictability means anyone can face tragedy at any time, as seen in the works of various authors like Camus, Kafka, and Dostoevsky.

    Existentialism warns against Quietism, the resignation to meaninglessness. Despite life's inherent lack of meaning, existentialists advocate for living authentically and facing the possibility of meaning breakdown without succumbing to despair.

    Facticity[edit | edit source]

    Facticity, in Sartre's view, encompasses personal facts like past experiences and physical attributes, akin to Heidegger's concept of being thrown into the world. It shapes who we are but doesn't define us entirely. Ignoring its influence leads to inauthenticity. Facticity limits our freedom by including things we didn't choose, such as where we were born, yet it also conditions our freedom because our values often depend on it.

    Despite its fixed nature, we can choose how we interpret and give meaning to our past. For example, two people might commit similar crimes, but one moves forward while the other blames their past. Authentic living requires acknowledging both present constraints and future goals. Facticity can cause anxiety by limiting freedom and fostering responsibility, yet it highlights our ability to change values and take responsibility, independent of societal norms, clarifying the link between freedom and responsibility in existentialism.

    Authenticity[edit | edit source]

    Existentialists stress the importance of authentic existence, which means being true to oneself and living according to one's own values. Authenticity involves acting freely, not just following societal norms or external expectations.

    To be authentic, one must make choices based on one's true values, taking responsibility for those choices. This contrasts with inauthenticity, where one denies their freedom and acts according to societal roles or expectations. For example, in "bad faith," someone might pretend to be a stereotypical waiter, conforming to expectations rather than expressing their true self. This behavior reflects a lack of authenticity. Authenticity isn't about rejecting all social norms; it's about embracing one's freedom and acting in accordance with one's own values and beliefs.

    The Other and The Look[edit | edit source]

    The concept of the Other, often capitalized as "O," is central to phenomenology, but it's also discussed in existentialist writings with some differences. The Other refers to the experience of encountering another free individual who shares the same world as oneself. This experience creates a sense of objectivity and intersubjectivity.

    When we encounter the Other, we perceive them as experiencing the same world as us, albeit from a different perspective. This mutual perception makes the world seem objective and shared. The experience of being looked at by the Other, called the Look or Gaze, not only confirms our own existence but can also limit our freedom by objectifying us. For example, imagine someone peeping through a keyhole and suddenly realizing they're being observed. This realization can evoke feelings of shame, as they perceive themselves as an object seen by another person. This experience of shame, according to Sartre, proves the existence of other minds and defeats solipsism.

    It's important to note that the Look doesn't necessarily require another person to be present. It's more about how we perceive ourselves being seen by others, even if no one is actually observing us.

    Angst and Dread[edit | edit source]

    Existential angst, also known as existential dread or anxiety, is a common theme in existentialist thought. It arises from the experience of human freedom and responsibility. An example is feeling anxious while standing on a cliff, where one realizes the freedom to either step back or jump off.

    Unlike fear, which has a specific object, angst is a feeling of unease before nothingness. There's a sense of insecurity about the consequences of one's actions, as one realizes the full responsibility for them. There's no external factor to blame if things go wrong, making every choice significant. While not every choice leads to dread, the awareness of freedom remains constant.

    Despair[edit | edit source]

    Despair in existentialism goes beyond just losing hope; it's about losing hope when something crucial to your identity breaks down. For example, if a singer loses their ability to sing and has nothing else to rely on for their identity, they may feel despair. What's unique about existential despair is that it's a constant state, even if you're not actively feeling hopeless. As per existentialist thought, because human identity is based on qualities that can crumble, everyone is in a state of perpetual despair.

    Kierkegaard describes this as an eternal decision—either to hope or to fear. Choosing hope means looking expectantly towards good possibilities, while choosing fear means expecting evil possibilities. This choice has a profound impact on one's life and outlook.

    Opposition to Positivism and Rationalism[edit | edit source]

    Existentialists reject the idea that humans are mainly rational and challenge both positivism and rationalism. They believe that people make decisions based on personal meaning rather than strict rationality. Instead of relying solely on reason, existentialism focuses on the anxiety and dread we feel because of our radical free will and awareness of death.

    Kierkegaard and Sartre both criticized rationality. Kierkegaard saw it as limited when dealing with existential issues, while Sartre called it "bad faith", a way to impose order on a world that is fundamentally irrational and unpredictable. Sartre believed that trying to suppress anxiety leads people to conform to everyday experiences, giving up their freedom and becoming controlled by societal expectations or the judgments of others.

    Religion[edit | edit source]

    An existentialist approach to the Bible means seeing oneself as an existing person studying its words, not just as a passive recipient of truths. Instead of viewing the commandments as imposed from outside, an existentialist reader interprets them as inner guidance. This perspective challenges individuals to engage deeply with the teachings and apply them to their lives. Scholars like Hans Jonas and Rudolph Bultmann brought this existentialist interpretation into discussions of Early Christianity and Christian Theology.

    Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Nihilism and existentialism are often mixed up because they both grapple with the feeling of emptiness and confusion in a world that seems to lack meaning.

    Existentialists highlight the feeling of angst, which suggests a complete absence of any clear reason for action. This can be wrongly interpreted as moral or existential nihilism. However, existentialism often encourages facing life's absurdities head-on, as shown in Albert Camus's statement in "The Myth of Sisyphus" that we should imagine Sisyphus happy. Existentialists rarely reject morality or the pursuit of self-created meaning entirely: Søren Kierkegaard found a form of morality in religion, while Jean-Paul Sartre hinted at addressing ethical questions in future works.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Kierkegaardianism[edit | edit source]

    ‟Marry, you will regret; If you don't get married, you'll regret it; Whether you marry or not, you'll regret it... Trust a woman, you will regret; Don't trust her, you will regret; Trust her or not, you'll regret it. Hang yourself, you'll regret it; If you don't hang yourself, you'll regret it; Hang yourself or not, you'll regret it. This, gentlemen, is the whole and essence of all philosophy.”

    Søren Kierkegaard

    Kierkegaardianism is the philosophy of a 19th-century Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard. Widely considered to be the first Existentialist philosophy, Kierkegaardianism mostly deals with the necessity of confronting existential anxiety and despair as pathways to true selfhood and meaning. Kierkegaard's emphasis on the "leap of faith," a commitment to belief in God that transcends rationality and embraces paradox, is distinguished by its focus on the stages of life's way—the aesthetic, ethical, and religious—which represent a progression towards authentic existence through personal choice and responsibility.

    Alienation[edit | edit source]

    Alienation, as philosophers define it, encompasses various feelings of disconnection from society, moral breakdown, powerlessness in the face of social structures, and the impersonal nature of large organizations. Kierkegaard acknowledges and interprets alienation in his own unique way, seeing the present age as one that values thought over action, discussion over reality, and fantasy over the real world. He believes that humans have lost meaning because objective reality is ambiguous and subjective thought prevails. For Kierkegaard, humans find meaning through passion, desire, and moral and religious commitment, rather than pure objectivity. Kierkegaard's analysis of the present age differs somewhat from Hegel and Marx's theories of alienation.

    Either/Or[edit | edit source]

    According to Kierkegaard, the human is always an existence in which has to choose specific choice between either/or. This choice may be making a choice between the two of good and good/evil and evil, and not the choice between the dualist structure of good and evil. At this time, the human feels anxiousness or pain due to the difficulty of choice. And by avoiding or reserving the decision during the given situation of choice the human falls into despair, which Kierkegaard refered to as the sickness unto death. He thought that the objectivity cannot give the human in this situation a solution, and claimed that truth is subjectivity while advocating subjective choice.

    Three Phases of Existence[edit | edit source]

    Kierkegaard opposed the idea of categorizing and partitioning the "world of the spirit," emphasizing that it cannot be objectively divided. He critiqued Hegel's stages outlined in "Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion" in his own work, "Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments." In Kierkegaard's view, the stages of existence are not like cities on a journey but rather represent internal transformations. He emphasized the importance of subjective inwardness and criticized the tendency to judge one's actions based on external standards rather than internal conviction and personal relationship with Christ.

    In one interpretation of stage theory, each stage of existence encompasses the ones below it, with the difference being internal rather than external. Kierkegaard argued against looking to others to gauge one's actions, advocating instead for self-reflection and looking to Christ as an example. Kierkegaard's tripartition of existence into aesthetic, ethical, and religious stages differs from the structure of "Either/Or" but maintains a similar either/or framework. He believed the ethical and religious stages are essential and interconnected.

    Kierkegaard illustrated Christ's boundless love for Peter as an example of loving the person one sees, emphasizing the importance of maintaining relationships and showing love even when others may seem unworthy. He explored the concept of hope and fear in relation to the possible, arguing that hope pertains to the eternal and extends throughout one's life rather than being limited to specific periods or ages.

    1. Aesthetic Existence: Kierkegaard, often called the "poet-philosopher," explored aesthetics and critiqued a life centered solely on aesthetic pleasures. Aesthetic life, as depicted in his work, encompasses various degrees of intellectual enjoyment, sensuous desires, and a tendency to view oneself as a performer on a stage. This lifestyle ranges from unreflective to highly reflective and socially disengaged. Many people, according to Kierkegaard, live in the least reflective form of aesthetic existence, preoccupied with mundane tasks. Those who are more reflective are fewer in number. However, Kierkegaard suggests that regardless of awareness, those who solely pursue aesthetic pleasures will eventually experience despair. His character A exemplifies this aesthetic life, seeking fleeting pleasures without deeper reflection. Kierkegaard warns against the consequences of a life solely driven by intellectual agility and aesthetic pursuits. He urges individuals to consider the passage of time and the consequences of wasted opportunities. He cautions against the allure of endless possibilities, which may lead to unrest and ultimately become a burden rather than a blessing.
    2. Ethical Existence: The ethical level of existence marks a significant shift for individuals as they become aware of their responsibility for distinguishing between good and evil. At this stage, one commits to personal integrity and accountability in actions. This level emphasizes the importance of reflecting on one's life and actions with absolute responsibility, akin to what Kierkegaard terms "repentance." In Kierkegaard's view, the ethical dimension resembles the concept of Dharma in the Vedic tradition, involving adherence to moral principles and societal laws. "Judge Wilhelm," a character in Kierkegaard's "Either/Or," outlines the ethical consciousness, emphasizing the need for individuals to take responsibility for their choices and actions. The ethically governed person acknowledges past deeds, strives for consistency, and embraces passionate living. Kierkegaard also delves into the interplay between the spiritual and the sensual within Christianity, cautioning against overemphasis on spirituality at the expense of the physical world. He explores the complexity of love, suggesting that while marital love holds potential for deep emotional connection, it requires commitment and inner fortitude to withstand doubts and challenges.
    3. Religious Existence: The ethical and religious dimensions in Kierkegaard's philosophy are closely intertwined. While one can embrace ethical seriousness without being religious, the religious stage encompasses the ethical. In Kierkegaard's view, the transition from the aesthetic to the ethical and then to the religious stage involves a deepening engagement with time and personal responsibility. Kierkegaard's pseudonyms discuss religion as the highest stage of human existence. They differentiate between two types of religiousness: one exemplified by Socrates, emphasizing individual conscience and truth-seeking, and another acknowledging human sinfulness and the need for redemption. For Kierkegaard, religion begins with an individual's awareness of their sinfulness and their relationship with a transcendent power. Kierkegaard emphasizes the Christian notion of sin as the fundamental opposition to faith. He argues that true admittance to faith comes through the consciousness of sin, not through scholarly pursuits or intellectual arguments. This consciousness of sin is essential for genuine Christian faith and serves as a gateway to religious truth and salvation.

    Politics[edit | edit source]

    Kierkegaard, often seen as apolitical, actually engaged in political topics in some of his writings. While he initially criticized the women's liberation movement and made some misogynistic remarks early on, his later works showed respect for women and emphasized equality before God. He mocked Hegelianism in his writings but admired Hegel personally and could appreciate his ideas in theory.

    Politically, Kierkegaard leaned towards conservatism and opposed democracy, favoring monarchy instead. He held the Danish king in high regard and criticized democracy as tyrannical. He also had disdain for the media and criticized the Danish public, likening them to a bored, self-indulgent emperor. Some interpretations suggest that Kierkegaard believed sexuality was irrelevant in serving God.

    Despite his conservative leanings, Kierkegaard's political philosophy influenced both radical and anti-traditional thinkers like Dietrich Bonhoeffer and Jean-Paul Sartre. It's been compared to neoconservatism but also seen as a starting point for contemporary political theories.

    Sartrean Existentialism[edit | edit source]

    Sartrean Existentialism is a philosophy based on Jean-Paul Sartre. Every human tool is made with given essential. Chair for example, is made with essential, to make people sit on it. Human, however is not made with given essential, thus existence precedes essence. Human who has no essential must choose and act according to his own preference, which would later make his own new identity. Sartre originally did not appreciate the term 'existentialism', but he accepted the term not long after.

    Radical Freedom[edit | edit source]

    The basis for Sartre's philosophy is radical freedom. Freedom in the sense of Sartre is not to be without shackles, in fact, he sees shackles everywhere, but rather, the ultimate existence of choice within our subjective experience. Now Sartre is not one that simply ignores deterministic arguments and makes the dominant proposition that the individual is free, but rather cites his basis for freedom in lived subjectivity. Groups such as the post-structuralists critique the entire notion of subjectivity, and Sartre agrees with some of their critiques, but says it would be dogmatic to ignore the lived subjectivity we are feeling right now. Sartre says that for subjectivity to exist it must be differentiated from the flow of life, there must be a separation. This is where Sartre deviates from Heidegger in his theory of the subject and of freedom, as Heidegger asserts that the feeling of subjectivity can only come with that being being united with that outside of it, i.e. being in the world, dasien. Thus to Sartre, no matter what external forces one is subjected to, one is always free to choose. If one is in prison, one can attempt escape. Sartre is not saying that that would be a logical choice, but it is a choice, hence freedom in the Sartrian sense.

    Bad Faith And Responsibility[edit | edit source]

    From this freedom, from this complete control of all of our actions, one is faced with complete responsibility for everything in one's life. Sartre, being a Marxist, says that the proletariat are subjected by the bourgeoisie, yet he still says the Proletariat is responsible for where they ended up, not for being subjected, yet they still are responsible for the choices that led them to the present moment. It is similar to Kierkegaard's conception of either or, one has choice and will be responsible and thus regret no matter what one does. This view has led many Marxists to critique Sartre, citing material conditions as a driving force rather than human subjectivity. Sartre in his later years would become less radical in this position, becoming more Marxist, yet still holds the view that the individual has radical responsibility. Now the individual, faced with this radical freedom, may choose to deny their freedom, to simply accept that this is the way that things are. Sartre calls this phenomenon bad faith. Now Sartre completely understands why one would do this, saying that man is condemned to be free, yet says that one must face this freedom and responsibility in order to fully realize themselves authentically. An example of bad faith is the waiter, discontent with their current job. The waiter accepts that this is simply how it is and that they are condemned to a life of monotony. Instead of taking steps to lift themself out of their situation, they deny their freedom and accept their place in life. Sartre calls this a pinnacle example of bad faith. This is one of the reasons Sartre is so critical of religion, as it denies ones freedom and instead makes everything in god. This is the same reason he is critical of determinism. Camus holds a similar view, that of philosophical suicide, that many have cited to be one of their simularities.

    Phenomenology And The Subject[edit | edit source]

    Sartre, especially in his early years, was a phenomenologist, a discipline established by Husserl and further popularized by Heidegger. Despite being heavily influenced by these two, his phenomenology differed heavily. Husserl said that to be conscious, one must be conscious of one's consciousness. Sartre agrees with this, yet not in the way that Husserl formatted it. Instead, Sartre says that even if one is conscious in the usual sense, unless one is aware of themselves they are not truly conscious. Now this when first heard can seem ridiculous, obviously I am always conscious of myself, one refers to oneself all the time. When one talks, one almost always says I or me, etc. Yet Sartre would ask that objector if one ever is aware of what I even means, what it implies. When someone says I, one is always never thinking of I's content, it is an empty signifier. Instead of being conscious, one is enthralled in the other, oneself is another. Only when one realizes that I am me and that I am here does one become conscious. Now Sartre's phenomenology really emphasizes this enthrallment, what Heiddegger calls fallingness. Nothing is this more present than in the look. The look is when one is abruptly pulled out of this enthrallment, when one suddenly sees oneself as an object. Sartre says that this is caused by the presence of another individual, that when they gaze at oneself one suddenly sees oneself from their gaze.

    Berdyaevism[edit | edit source]

    Berdyaevism is a philosophy of Russian Christian existentialist philosopher Nikolai Berdyaev (1874–1948).

    Dostoyevskianism[edit | edit source]

    Dostoyevskianism covers the philosophical views of Russian writer Fyodor Dostoevsky. Dostoevsky's literary works explore the human condition in the troubled political, social, and spiritual atmospheres of 19th-century Russia, and engage with a variety of philosophical and religious themes.

    Dostoevsky's emphasis on moral responsibility and the consequences of human actions has contributed to the development of an ethics of responsibility, which emphasizes the importance of taking responsibility for our actions and their effects on others.

    Feminist Existentialism[edit | edit source]

    Feminist Existentialism is a Feminist and Existentialist philosophy that emphasizes concepts such as freedom, interpersonal relationships, and the experience of living as a human body. They value the capacity for radical change, but recognize that factors such as self-deception and the anxiety caused by the possibility of change can limit it. Many are dedicated to exposing and undermining socially imposed gender roles and cultural constructs limiting women's self-determination.

    Atheist Existentialism[edit | edit source]

    Atheist Existentialism is the exclusion of any transcendental, metaphysical, or religious beliefs from philosophical existentialist thought. It is a kind of existentialism which strongly diverged from the Christian existential works of Søren Kierkegaard and developed within the context of an atheistic world view. The philosophies of Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche provided existentialism's theoretical foundation in the 19th century, although their differing views on religion proved essential to the development of alternate types of existentialism. Atheistic existentialism was formally recognized after the 1943 publication of Being and Nothingness by Jean-Paul Sartre and Sartre later explicitly alluded to it in Existentialism is a Humanism in 1946.

    Christian Existentialism[edit | edit source]

    Islamic Existentialism[edit | edit source]

    Jewish Existentialism[edit | edit source]

    Black Existentialism[edit | edit source]

    Existential Phenomenology[edit | edit source]

    Existential Phenomenology is a philosophical approach that combines elements of Phenomenology and Existentialism. It emphasizes the study of human experience, particularly as it relates to our understanding of the self, our relationship to others, and our place in the world.

    Buberianism[edit | edit source]

    Buberianism is a philosophy of Martin Buber.

    File:Fanon.png Fanonism[edit | edit source]

    Fanonism is the philosophy of Frantz Fanon.

    Kafkism[edit | edit source]

    Kafkism is a philosophy based on writer Franz Kafka. Franz Kafka's works mainly depicts an individual who are forced to live in the absurd - kafkaesque - bureaucratic systems. Franz Kafka's works were popularized - long after his death - by French socialist philosophers including: Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari.

    Shestovism[edit | edit source]

    Shestovism is the philosophy of the Russian philosopher Lev Shestov, who was active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. At its core, Shestovism challenges the dominant rationalist and positivist trends of Western philosophy during that time. Shestov rejected the idea that reason and logic could provide ultimate truths about existence, arguing instead for a more existential and subjective approach to understanding life. Central to Shestov's philosophy is the concept of "faith" and the importance of individual experience and intuition.

    Šliogerisianism[edit | edit source]

    Philotopia[edit | edit source]

    One of the most important concepts in Šliogeris' early work – philotopia – was formulated in the book "The World of Man and Existential Thinking" (Žmogaus pasaulis ir egzistencinis mąstymas) and further developed in the works "Thing and Art" (Daiktas ir menas) and especially "Being and World" (Būtis ir pasaulis). Šliogeris urges to reject epistemological philosophy and transition to philotopia, which is understood as a profound love of a familiar, native place, the "place beyond the horizon," or more broadly – simply as being. He associates the crisis in Western philosophy with the fact that the human gaze has deviated from surrounding objects and become interested in complex epistemological problems. According to Šliogeris, to contemplate means to see, and the word 'seer' is equivalent to the term 'philotopian.' By definition, a philotopian is the philosopher of the living world, an equivalent of Heideggerian 'rootedness' in his time, culture, and society.

    Trăirism[edit | edit source]

    Trăirism is a Romanian philosophy from the interwar period with Nae Ionescu as its main representative and initiator. He professed an attitude inspired by the Lebensphilosophie, focused on proclaiming the primacy of living over the intellect.

    Criticism[edit | edit source]

    Related philosophies: Heideggerianism

    Criticism of Existentialism or just Anti-Existentialism as a philosophy means an opposition to Existentialism. Anti-Existentialists also usually hates Sartre, who is rather controversial due to his pro-communist stances.

    How to Draw[edit | edit source]

    Flag of Existentialism

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    • Romanticism - Emotions and individuality are core aspects of the human experience.
    • Idealism - Matter doesn’t just make up the world around us. It’s also the ideas that we come up with.
    • Irrationalism - You don’t like this snooty asshole? Me neither! Let’s talk sometime!
    • Free Will - We decide our own fates.
    • Mysticism - Who needs organized religion to have a relationship with the divine?
    • Optimistic Nihilism - Do whatever makes you happy 😊. We all have one life, so let’s make the most of it.
    • Cosmicism - Dread induced by the vastness of the universe, and the indifference the universe has to the individual.

    Frenemies[edit | edit source]

    • Humanism - Humans can and do create their own unique experiences. Also, my atheistic variant likes you a lot. But you are a bit too essentialist for my tastes.
    • Empiricism - On one hand, you do rely on observations and personal experiences to create knowledge. But on the other hand, you have some nerdy weirdos following you around.
    • Continental Philosophy - Many of the continental philosophers supported existentialism, but there are some who are materialistic and essentialist.

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    • Essentialism - Existence comes before essence!
    • Scientism and Scientific Realism - There are things in this world that cannot be explained or understood by scientific research alone.
    • Rationalism - There are things in the world that cannot be understood by pure reason, either.
    • Analytic Philosophy - Name me one prominent analytic philosopher that supports existentialism. Oh wait, you can’t.
      • William James? He supported Existentialism and he was also a philosopher who specialized in Pragmatism, which is a branch of Analytic Philosophy.
      • Do you have any source that William James explicitly supported Existentialism?
    • Historicism and Structuralism - The are no strict patterns of how history or social relationships happen, let alone how they work.

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

    Theorists[edit | edit source]

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