Materialism is a metaphysical stance that believes in the sole existence of the materials world, in contrast to Idealism.
History[edit | edit source]
Ancient Materialism[edit | edit source]
Asian Materialism[edit | edit source]
In ancient India - before the Buddha - there were already few people asserting that the universe is made up of only material beings.
European Materialism[edit | edit source]
In ancient Greece, Thales asserted that the universe is made up of Water. Since Thales, many Greek philosophers tried to explain the primary (material) source of the universe. Anaximander asserted that the universe is made up of Apeiron, which is existent, indefinite and eternal. Anaximenes of Miletus asserted that the universe is made up of air. Empedocles asserted that the universe is made up of four elements, which is fire, water, earth, air. Anaxagoras asserted that the universe is made up of infinite tiny particles or "seeds", which already has everything in the universe within itself. Democritus asserted that the universe is made up of literal atoms. After Aristotle, Epicureans and Stoics continued the legacy of European Materialism.
Modern Materialism[edit | edit source]
Materialism began to come back since the start of renaissance. Thomas Hobbes argued for materialism, and believed that deity existed as a material being.
Post-Materialism[edit | edit source]
Variants[edit | edit source]
Marxist Materialism[edit | edit source]
Marxist materialism is a general term that can encompass both historical and dialectical materialism. It refers to the overall materialist philosophy underlying Karl Marx's work, which emphasizes the importance of economic and material factors in understanding society and history.
Historical Materialism[edit | edit source]
Historical materialism is a philosophical approach developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, which asserts that material conditions determine the structure of society and that historical change is driven by changes in the economic base. According to this view, social and political institutions are a reflection of the underlying economic system, and class struggle is the driving force behind historical development.
Dialectical Materialism[edit | edit source]
Dialectical materialism is a philosophical approach developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, which combines the ideas of materialism and dialectics. It asserts that matter is the primary substance of the universe, and that everything in the universe can be understood through its material basis. Dialectical materialism also emphasizes the importance of change, conflict, and contradiction in driving historical development.
Eliminative Materialism[edit | edit source]
Eliminative materialism is a philosophical approach that denies the existence of mental states, such as beliefs, desires, and emotions, and argues that these concepts should be eliminated from scientific discourse. According to this view, mental states are not ontologically real and cannot be reduced to physical states, such as neural activity in the brain.
Physicalism[edit | edit source]
Physicalism is a philosophical approach that asserts that everything in the universe is physical in nature, and that mental states and consciousness can be explained entirely in terms of physical processes in the brain. According to this view, the physical world is the only real world, and all phenomena, including mental phenomena, can ultimately be reduced to physical laws and properties.
Neutral Monism[edit | edit source]
Neutral monism is a philosophical approach that asserts that there is only one substance in the universe, and that both matter and mind are different aspects of this substance. According to this view, mental and physical phenomena are not fundamentally different, but are different perspectives on the same underlying reality.
Philosophical Beliefs[edit | edit source]
Matter Fundamentalism[edit | edit source]
Materialism firmly assert that matter is the bedrock of reality, standing as the fundamental substance from which everything else emerges. According to this worldview, matter exists autonomously, completely independent of consciousness or spiritual entities. In the eyes of materialists, the physical world takes precedence over any supernatural or metaphysical realms.
Reductionism[edit | edit source]
Materialism itself tends to explain phenomena and systems in terms of their constituent parts and physical properties, advocating for reductionism in understanding complex phenomena. As a philosophical ideology, materialism emphasizes the analysis of the fundamental components and physical aspects of the world.
Scientific Approach[edit | edit source]
Materialism holds a strong affinity for the scientific approach in acquiring knowledge about the world. It places great importance on empirical evidence, observation, and experimentation as the primary means of understanding and explaining phenomena.
Rejection of Supernatural Metaphysics[edit | edit source]
Materialism firmly rejects the notion of supernatural metaphysics, asserting that the material world encompasses the entirety of reality. According to materialist philosophy, there are no realms or entities beyond the physical realm that can influence or govern the natural world. Materialists argue that supernatural explanations, which involve invoking forces or entities that transcend the laws of nature, are unfounded and lack empirical evidence. They maintain that the principles governing the material universe can be understood through scientific investigation and observation, without the
Physical Determinism[edit | edit source]
Materialism often aligns with the concept of physical determinism, which posits that all events and phenomena, including human behavior, are ultimately determined by the laws of physics and the interactions of physical entities.
Emergent Materialism[edit | edit source]
The recognition of emergent properties is the key for materialism to embrace the complexity and diversity of the natural world. Materialists understand that when different components interact, new properties emerge that cannot be fully explained by examining the individual parts alone.
Relationships[edit | edit source]
Friends[edit | edit source]
- Humanism - Human rationality's lit.
- Naturalism - Only the natural world is real.
- Nominalism - There is nothing beyond the material world.
- Realism - Only physical reality.
Frenemies[edit | edit source]
- Dialectical Materialism - Scientific Marxism is legit and all, but let's leave that dialectics gibberish behind.
- Existentialism - It's complicated. They dig freedom and meaning, but sometimes we clash on the whole material vs. existential deal.
- Hedonism -sometimes like me because focuses on sensual pleasures, sometimes not.
- Pragmatism - We've got a love-hate thing going on. They're all about practicality, often shrugging off the material world. But hey, we sometimes find common ground on real-life results.
- Eleaticism - You influenced my idea of atoms but most if not all of my theorists reject you.
Enemies[edit | edit source]
- Idealism - The land where unicorns fart rainbows and make dreams come true.
- Solipsism - Talking with them is like questioning the existence of reality itself.But we are compatible because I also assert the priority of my own physical sensations.