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    Modernism is a cultural and intellectual movement that emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a response to the rapid social, political, and technological changes that were taking place in the world. It is characterized by a self-conscious break with traditional ways of thinking, artistic styles, and social norms, and a focus on experimentation, individualism, and the exploration of new forms of expression.

    History[edit | edit source]

    Art[edit | edit source]

    Early Modernist Art[edit | edit source]

    Modernism can be traced back to the late 19th century in France, where artists such as Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, and Vincent van Gogh began to experiment with new approaches to art-making, such as the use of bold colors, flattened space, and expressive brushstrokes.

    Avant-Garde Art[edit | edit source]

    Early artists were later followed by a new generation of avant-garde artists who sought to break with the past and create a new art for the modern age. Among these were the Cubists, led by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, who sought to fragment and reassemble forms in new and unconventional ways.

    Futurist Art[edit | edit source]

    Other modernist movements that emerged during this period include Futurism, which celebrated the speed and dynamism of modern life, and Expressionism, which sought to convey the inner emotional experiences of the individual.

    Dada and Surrealist Art[edit | edit source]

    In the years following World War I, modernism continued to evolve and expand, with new movements such as Dada and Surrealism emerging in response to the traumatic experiences of the war. These movements emphasized the irrational and the absurd, and sought to challenge traditional notions of art and society.

    New Modernist Art[edit | edit source]

    Throughout the 20th century, modernism continued to influence and shape the art world, with artists such as Jackson Pollock and Mark Rothko pushing the boundaries of abstract expressionism, and others such as Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein exploring the intersections of art, popular culture, and mass media.

    Literature[edit | edit source]

    The roots of modernism in literature can be traced back to the works of writers such as Gustave Flaubert, Charles Baudelaire, and Fyodor Dostoevsky, who sought to explore the inner lives of their characters and capture the changing realities of modern life.

    In the early 20th century, modernist writers such as James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, and T.S. Eliot began to experiment with new forms of narrative and language, often using techniques such as stream of consciousness and fragmentation to convey the complexities of human experience. At the same time, other writers, such as Franz Kafka and Samuel Beckett, explored themes of alienation and absurdity, creating works that challenged traditional notions of plot and character.

    Music[edit | edit source]

    The history of modernism in music can be traced back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when a group of composers began to experiment with new techniques and approaches to music-making. Composers, who included Claude Debussy, Arnold Schoenberg, and Igor Stravinsky, sought to break with the traditional tonal system that had dominated Western music for centuries and create a new, more expressive and innovative form of music.

    Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Form follow function[edit | edit source]

    One of the fundamental principle of modernist design is called "form follow function" that consisted in matching appearance and aesthetics to its functionality.

    Rejection of Tradition[edit | edit source]

    Modernism rejected traditional beliefs, styles, and techniques prevalent in the 19th century. It sought to break away from established norms and embrace new approaches to art, culture, and society.

    Experimentation and Innovation[edit | edit source]

    Modernist artists, writers, and thinkers valued experimentation and innovation. They explored new forms, techniques, and materials, pushing the boundaries of their respective fields.

    Subjectivity and Individualism[edit | edit source]

    Modernism emphasized individual experience and subjectivity. Artists and writers often turned inward, exploring personal perspectives, emotions, and existential themes.

    Fragmentation and Discontinuity[edit | edit source]

    Modernist works often featured fragmented structures, disjointed narratives, and discontinuous forms. This reflected a response to the rapidly changing and fragmented nature of modern life.

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    • WIP

    Frenemies[edit | edit source]

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    • Traditionalist School - You're holding back progress and creativity with your outdated ideas. It's time to join the modern era.
    • Pre-Modernism - It was necessary to take a step forward.

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

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