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    Positivism is a philosophy that says true knowledge comes from facts we observe or reason out. It doesn't accept other ways of knowing like intuition or religious faith. Auguste Comte first explained modern positivism in the early 19th century. He believed society, like the physical world, follows laws. After Comte, positivism spread to many areas like logic, psychology, and economics, with people trying to use scientific methods in these fields. While positivism was once popular, it's faced criticism in recent times. Some say it's too focused on science, simplifies things too much, and has limitations in how it approaches problems.

    Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Empiricism[edit | edit source]

    Positivists believed in using both logical and empirical methods within a unified scientific approach. This method, outlined in the Vienna Circle's manifesto in 1929, stressed the importance of empirical evidence and logical analysis in understanding the natural world. The goal was to establish objective knowledge based on what can be directly observed or experienced. This approach influenced both natural and social sciences during the latter part of the 19th century.

    One of the main aims of positivism was to create objective knowledge, free from subjective biases or speculative interpretations. Positivists criticized philosophical constructs that relied on speculative ideas rather than empirical evidence, leading to the idea of purifying science from metaphysical assumptions. Some positivists believed in developing a "good" scientific philosophy, which would be treated as a separate field of concrete scientific knowledge, adhering to the same rigorous method as other sciences. However, various theories proposed to fulfill this role faced criticism, including challenges from within the positivist movement itself, as they often failed to meet the criteria of scientific rigor and relied on implicit metaphysical assumptions.

    Stages of Human Thought[edit | edit source]

    In the theological stage of human thought, people used the concept of God to explain phenomena, attributing them to divine causes depicted in human-like forms. This stage evolved through three phases: fetishism, where people worshiped objects with human attributes due to limited imagination; polytheism, where gods were invented and depicted with human characteristics; and finally, monotheism, where a single God was identified as the ultimate cause.

    Moving to the metaphysical stage, people sought to understand the origins and purposes of things, replacing gods with abstract entities. Nature became a central concept, described by Comte as the "vague equivalent of universal connection." Metaphysics, however, gained a negative reputation among positivists, as it was seen as baseless speculation, even if expressed logically.

    Finally, in the positive stage, scientific knowledge emerged as the sole form of knowledge. Humanity matured to acknowledge the relative nature of knowledge. Positivism departed from the optimism of the scientific revolution, emphasizing empiricism, where imagination is subordinate to observation. Knowledge sought not essences but relationships expressed through laws, capturing constant connections between facts. Scientific knowledge became pragmatic, prioritizing usefulness, accuracy, reliability, and affirmation. Scientists focused on practical applications rather than accumulating encyclopedic knowledge. In essence, knowledge became positive, reflecting a shift towards practical, accurate, and reliable understanding.

    Evolution[edit | edit source]

    Positivists, inspired by Condorcet's idea of progress from the Baroque era, embraced the notion of advancement towards a specific goal, with science as the primary driver of human development. Progress, closely linked to evolution but not confined to it, gained prominence in the 1850s. While some attribute the discovery of evolution to Charles Darwin, others credit English positivist philosopher Herbert Spencer. Spencer introduced the concept of cosmic evolution, describing it as a universal law governing the development of nature and society. Evolution, depicted as a transition from uniformity to diversity, illustrates how development unfolds from simplicity to complexity. Spencer drew parallels from various sciences, such as astronomy, biology, and sociology, showcasing how the cosmic nebula transforms into diverse celestial bodies, protoplasm evolves into various life forms, and primitive societies diversify into complex states. Evolution is marked by a progression from disorder to order, accompanied by a gradual slowdown due to the dispersal of energy. This concept of evolution has proven to be influential, embraced by materialists, idealists, and mystics alike, highlighting its broad applicability and significance across different philosophical perspectives.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Warsaw Positivism[edit | edit source]

    Poznań School[edit | edit source]

    Poznań School, known as the Poznań Methodological School, is a philosophy that criticizes the Marxist Humanistic interpretation. The name "Marxism" in the name of the ideology comes from the fact that many theoreticians of the Poznań school had Marxist views.

    How to Draw[edit | edit source]

    1. Draw a ball
    2. Color it dark blue
    3. Add a white plus sign in the middle
    4. Add the two eyes

    You are done!

    Color Name HEX RGB
    Dark Blue #11185c 17, 24, 92
    White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255

    Personality[edit | edit source]

    Positivism is an optimistic and intelligent ball, often preoccupied with performing experiments or writing his theories. He believes that nothing is beyond the capabilities of science and sees religious and spiritual balls as foolish to depend on concepts that remain unproven by scientific method.

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    • New Atheism - Fighting the good fight against superstition.
    • Altruism-Altruism is a worldview focused on serving others and society as a whole, and this is important to us.
    • Antropotheism-This is the Church of Positivism.

    Frenemies[edit | edit source]

    • Aristotelianism - The first empiricist, but what's this "teleology" nonsense?
    • Scientific Deism - Proving God with empiric evidence? I have to see before I believe.

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    • Religion - We shouldn't concern ourselves with made-up concepts of "divine"
    • Anti-Positivism - STOP DENYING ME!
    • Pessimism - You just have nothing but negative facts.
    • Egoism-Selfishness is a problem of society.

    Quotes[edit | edit source]

    “The sacred formula of positivism: love as a principle, the order as a foundation, and progress as a goal.”

    Auguste Comte

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

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