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    Post-Modernism is a perspective that challenges Enlightenment ideas, questioning overarching narratives and the certainty of knowledge. It acknowledges the role of ideology in maintaining power and emphasizes the conditional nature of knowledge, dismissing the notion of objective truth. Postmodernism values self-referentiality, relativism in both epistemology and morality, diversity, irony, irreverence, and eclecticism. It rejects fixed oppositions, stable identities, hierarchy, and categorization.

    Originating in response to modernism in the mid-20th century, postmodernism has influenced various fields and is associated with critical theory, deconstruction, and post-structuralism. Critics argue that postmodernism promotes unclear thinking, disregards Enlightenment ideals of rationality and scientific rigor, and contributes little to analytical or empirical knowledge.

    Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Philosophy[edit | edit source]

    Postmodernism is an intellectual stance or mode of discourse defined by an attitude of skepticism toward the "grand narratives" associated with modernism, opposition to notions of epistemic certainty or the stability of meaning, and emphasis on the role of ideology in maintaining systems of socio-political power. Claims to objective fact are dismissed as naive realism, with attention drawn to the conditional nature of knowledge claims within particular historical, political, and cultural discourses. Thus, the postmodern outlook is characterized by self-referentiality, epistemological relativism, moral relativism, pluralism, irony, irreverence, and eclecticism; it rejects the "universal validity" of binary oppositions, stable identity, hierarchy, and categorization.

    For example, Post-modernism believes there is no grand narrative or truth that exists (a deconstructing of Modernism) as Modernism holds onto the objective, scientific, truth as the answer to reality. Pre-modernists likely believed God created the universe, in contrast. Post-modernists however lead to that neither material value nor God created reality, but therefore what did is heavily disputed. It doesn't claim there is any objective truth, since reality is a decentralized form of concept, conflicting with the idea of a "Grand narrative".

    Art[edit | edit source]

    Postmodernism in art is a movement that both emerges from and reacts against modernism. It challenges and rejects various aspects of modernism, such as formal purity, medium specificity, art for art's sake, authenticity, universality, originality, and the avant-garde. One of the central ideas of modernism that postmodernism reacts to is paradox. Postmodernism incorporates paradoxes in art, highlighting the supposed contradictions between reality and representation, design and representation, and abstraction and reality.

    Postmodern art is characterized by the blending of high and low culture, incorporating industrial materials and pop culture imagery. This merging of different forms of art was also experimented with in modernism. However, it became more fully embraced in the postmodern era. Postmodern art introduces elements of commercialism, kitsch, and a camp aesthetic. It takes styles from past artistic periods, such as Gothicism, the Renaissance, and the Baroque, and combines them in a way that disregards their original contexts.

    Literature[edit | edit source]

    Postmodernism in literature emerged as a movement in the mid-20th century, departing from modernist principles and rejecting traditional narrative structures. It encompasses fragmented and self-reflexive approaches, blurring the lines between fiction and reality. Postmodern literature embraces fragmented narratives, disrupted timelines, and multiple perspectives, challenging the notion of a singular narrative. Metafiction is a key feature, as writers explore the artificiality of storytelling and question truth and authorship. Intertextuality is employed through references, allusions, and parodies, blurring originality and imitation. Irony and parody critique contemporary culture and established norms, while deconstructing boundaries between high and low culture, fiction and nonfiction, and reality and fantasy. Prominent writers like Borges, Calvino, Nabokov, Pynchon, Rushdie, and Winterson have explored themes of identity, language, history, power, and the nature of storytelling within the diverse and complex realm of postmodern literature.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Hypermodernism[edit | edit source]

    Post-Modern Spirituality[edit | edit source]

    Post-Modern Theology (Christian Post-Modernism)[edit | edit source]

    Radical Orthodoxy[edit | edit source]

    Weak Theology[edit | edit source]

    Islamic Post-Modernism[edit | edit source]

    Signalism[edit | edit source]

    Lyotardianism[edit | edit source]

    Lyotardism is the philosophy of Jean-François Lyotard, who was the first person to use the term "Postmodernism" in a philosophical context.

    Hideaki Anno Thought[edit | edit source]

    Pelevinism[edit | edit source]

    Pelevinism is philosophy of russian fiction writer and essayist Victor Pelevin known for his surreal and satirical style. Pelevin's philosophy can be characterized by a deep skepticism towards mainstream ideas and institutions, including religion, politics, and consumer culture. He often critiques these systems for their tendency to manipulate individuals and limit their potential for self-discovery and personal growth. Pelevin's works often incorporate postmodernist elements, such as self-referential narratives, metafiction, and deconstruction of traditional storytelling. He challenges conventional notions of reality and explores the boundaries between fiction and reality.

    Pelevin frequently explores the concept of virtual reality and the blurring of lines between the real and the virtual. His characters often navigate worlds that are ambiguous and dreamlike, reflecting the disorienting nature of modern existence.

    At the same time, Pelevin is interested in exploring the hidden dimensions of reality and consciousness, including Eastern mystical traditions such as Zen Buddhism and Taoism. He often uses these ideas to challenge conventional notions of identity and selfhood, emphasizing the fluid and impermanent nature of the self.

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    • Post-Structuralism - Although we aren't the same, we cross paths sometimes and we often have the same philosophers.
    • Nietzscheanism - Nietzsche was right about lot of things.
    • Relativism - Judgements of facts is purely relative on eras and regions.

    Frenemies[edit | edit source]

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

    Literature[edit | edit source]

    Videos[edit | edit source]

    1. Herzen was critical of grand narratives
    2. [https://deontologistics.co/2009/08/18/metaphysics-after-heidegger/ Metaphysics after Heidegger
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