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    (Redirected from Realism)

    “all idealism is falseness in the face of necessity”

    Friedrich Nietzsche

    Philosophical Realism is a broad philosophical and artistic movement that emerged in the 19th century and has influenced many areas of thought and culture. At its core, realism emphasizes the idea that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions or interpretations of it.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Aesthetic Realism[edit | edit source]

    Aesthetic Realism is a philosophical perspective that suggests the ultimate nature of reality is tied to aesthetic qualities, emphasizing beauty and harmony as fundamental aspects of existence.

    Agential Realism[edit | edit source]

    Agential Realism is a philosophical framework developed by physicist and philosopher Karen Barad, which explores the interrelation of agency (human and non-human) and the material world, emphasizing the inseparability of the observer and the observed.

    Australian Realism[edit | edit source]

    Australian Realism is a philosophical movement in Australia that focuses on the analysis of language and the importance of ordinary language in philosophy, particularly associated with philosophers like John Anderson and J.L. Mackie.

    Austrian Realism[edit | edit source]

    Austrian Realism is a philosophical position associated with the Austrian philosopher Franz Brentano, emphasizing the importance of mental phenomena and intentionality in understanding reality.

    Conceptualist Realism[edit | edit source]

    Conceptualist Realism is a philosophical perspective proposed by David Wiggins, which combines elements of conceptualism (the view that abstract objects exist only as concepts) and realism (the view that objects exist independently of thought).

    Critical Realism[edit | edit source]

    Critical Realism can refer to various philosophical positions that assert the existence of a reality beyond our perception or that critically examine the limitations of our knowledge and understanding.

    Dialectical Realism[edit | edit source]

    Dialectical Realism is a perspective associated with philosopher Ian Hacking that explores how scientific concepts evolve over time and how they influence our understanding of reality.

    Representational Realism (Indirect Realism)[edit | edit source]

    Indirect Realism is broadly equivalent to the scientific view of perception that subjects do not experience the external world as it really is, but perceive it through the lens of a conceptual framework.

    Empirical Realism[edit | edit source]

    The belief that the external world exists independently of our perception and can be known through empirical observation and scientific investigation.

    Entity Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position in philosophy of science that argues for the existence of theoretical entities postulated by scientific theories, even if they cannot be directly observed.

    Epistemic Structural Realism[edit | edit source]

    A philosophical stance in the philosophy of science that focuses on the structural aspects of scientific theories and argues that we can have knowledge of the structure of reality, but not necessarily of the underlying entities.

    Epistemological Realism[edit | edit source]

    The view that there is an objective reality that can be known and understood by human cognition, as opposed to forms of anti-realism that question the possibility of objective knowledge.

    Hermeneutic Realism[edit | edit source]

    A perspective associated with Martin Heidegger that combines elements of hermeneutics (the study of interpretation) and realism, emphasizing the importance of understanding the world through interpretation.

    Internal Realism (Pragmatic Realism)[edit | edit source]

    A position associated with philosopher Hilary Putnam that suggests that the truth of scientific statements is not determined solely by correspondence with an objective reality but also by their pragmatic success in predicting and explaining phenomena.

    Local Realism[edit | edit source]

    A view associated with the authors of the EPR paper (Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen) that challenges certain aspects of quantum mechanics, arguing for the existence of hidden variables and the locality of physical phenomena.

    Logical Realism[edit | edit source]

    The belief that the rules of logic are mind-independent and exist objectively, regardless of human thought or language.

    Mathematical Realism[edit | edit source]

    Mathematical Realism is a broad philosophical view that asserts the existence of mathematical objects or structures as abstract entities that exist independently of human thought or perception. According to mathematical realism, mathematical truths and concepts are discovered rather than invented by humans. Mathematical realists believe that mathematical entities, such as numbers, geometric shapes, and mathematical structures, have an objective existence.

    Mathematical Platonism[edit | edit source]

    Mathematical Platonism is a form of Mathematical Realism that posits the existence of a realm of abstract mathematical objects that are not physical or mental. Platonism comes from the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, who argued that abstract entities, including mathematical forms, exist in a separate realm of reality beyond the physical world. According to mathematical Platonism, mathematical objects have an independent existence, and our mathematical knowledge results from our ability to apprehend or access this realm.

    Mathematical Materialism[edit | edit source]

    Mathematical Materialism holds that abstract mathematical objects, such as numbers, sets, and mathematical structures, have a real existence within the material world. It asserts that these abstract entities are not separate from the physical universe but are, in some way, grounded in or derived from the physical world. According to this perspective, mathematical concepts and objects are ultimately reducible to or emergent from physical processes and structures, such as patterns in neural activity or the fundamental laws of physics.

    Metaphysical Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position that asserts the objective existence of abstract objects, such as numbers or universals, as independent of human thought or language.

    Extreme Realism[edit | edit source]

    The belief that abstract entities, such as Plato's Forms, exist independently and have a transcendent reality.

    Immanent Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position in the philosophy of universals that asserts the existence of universals but with a recognition of their dependence on particulars.

    Metaphysical Objectivism[edit | edit source]

    "Existence is a self-sufficient primary. It is not a product of a supernatural dimension, or of anything else. There is nothing antecedent to existence, nothing apart from it—and no alternative to it. Existence exists—and only existence exists. Its existence and its nature are irreducible and unalterable."

    Metaphysical Objectivism is a philosophical position that holds that there are objective facts about reality that exist independently of human beliefs, perceptions, or attitudes. This view maintains that there is a single, objective reality that exists, regardless of how humans perceive or interpret it.

    Metaphysical Objectivism is often contrasted with Relativism, which holds that reality is subjective and that different people or cultures may have different perspectives on what is true or real. Objectivism, on the other hand, maintains that there is a single, objective truth that can be discovered through rational inquiry and empirical investigation.

    Modal Realism[edit | edit source]

    The view proposed by philosopher David Lewis that all possible worlds are equally real and exist independently, including those that differ from our actual world.

    Model-dependent Realism[edit | edit source]

    A perspective introduced by Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow in their book "The Grand Design," suggesting that the choice of a scientific model or theory depends on its usefulness in making predictions, rather than representing an objective reality.

    Moral Realism[edit | edit source]

    The view that moral facts and values exist objectively and independently of human beliefs and opinions.

    Naïve Realism (Direct Realism)[edit | edit source]

    A theory of perception that posits that our sensory experiences directly represent the external world without any mental intermediaries.

    New Realism[edit | edit source]

    A philosophical movement in the early 20th century, primarily associated with Italian philosophers like Giovanni Gentile and Benedetto Croce, which sought to reconcile realism and idealism.

    Ontic structural Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position in the philosophy of science that emphasizes the importance of the structural aspects of reality, arguing that the structure of objects is more fundamental than their individual properties.

    Peircean Realism[edit | edit source]

    A perspective influenced by the American philosopher Charles S. Peirce, emphasizing the reality of signs and the interconnectedness of reality through semiotics.

    Perspectival Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position that acknowledges that our perception of reality is influenced by our perspective and viewpoint but still maintains the existence of an objective reality.

    Quasi-Realism[edit | edit source]

    A metaethical view developed by philosopher Simon Blackburn, which suggests that moral statements are expressions of our attitudes and emotions, rather than objective facts, while still treating them as if they were objective.

    Rational Realism[edit | edit source]

    A philosophical position associated with Christian Wolff and Jakob Friedrich Ludovici Bardili, emphasizing the rational and objective aspects of reality.

    Realistic Monism[edit | edit source]

    A metaphysical position that posits that there is only one kind of substance in the universe, often associated with the philosopher George Strawson.

    Realistic Rationalism[edit | edit source]

    A philosophical perspective that combines elements of realism and rationalism, emphasizing the role of reason and rationality in understanding reality.

    Referential Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position in the philosophy of language that asserts that words and expressions refer to real objects or entities in the world.

    Romantic Realism[edit | edit source]

    A literary and artistic movement that blends romantic elements with a realistic depiction of life, often associated with 19th-century literature.

    Scientific Realism[edit | edit source]

    Scientific Realism is a metaphysical stance on scientific activities' objectives and their meaning. Below are the representative theses that scientific realists generally accept.

    1. Science's objective is to clarify the world's objective truth.
    2. Scientific objects exist independently from the mind.
    3. The newest science precisely reveals the world's actual appearance at least approximately.
    4. Scientific knowledge is constantly accumulated and is gradually approaching the truth.

    Musgrave's Scientific Realism[edit | edit source]

    A specific form of scientific realism associated with philosopher John Musgrave, which focuses on the idea that science aims to provide true descriptions of the world.

    Scotistic Realism[edit | edit source]

    A philosophical position influenced by the thought of John Duns Scotus, emphasizing the reality of individual substances and their essences.

    Scottish Common Sense Realism[edit | edit source]

    Scottish Common Sense Realism is a realist school of philosophy that originated in the ideas of Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, and Dugald Stewart during the Scottish Enlightenment.

    Semantic Realism (Epistemology)[edit | edit source]

    A position in epistemology that suggests that the meaning of statements is determined by their correspondence to an objective reality.

    Semantic Realism (Philosophy of Science)[edit | edit source]

    A position in the philosophy of science proposed by Stathis Psillos, which argues for the existence of a mind-independent reality that science seeks to understand

    Semirealism[edit | edit source]

    A position in the philosophy of science developed by Anjan Chakravartty, which combines elements of scientific realism and anti-realism, acknowledging the underdetermination of theory by evidence.

    Set-theoretic Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position in the philosophy of mathematics associated with Penelope Maddy, which argues for the objective existence of mathematical objects, particularly those of set theory.

    Speculative Realism[edit | edit source]

    A contemporary philosophical movement that challenges various forms of correlationism and anti-realism, emphasizing the need to move beyond human-centric perspectives.

    Subtle Realism[edit | edit source]

    A nuanced form of realism that allows for the existence of abstract objects while recognizing their dependence on human thought.

    Theological Critical Realism[edit | edit source]

    A perspective in theology and philosophy that explores the relationship between theological claims and critical engagement with them, often involving the intersection of faith and reason.

    Transcendental Realism[edit | edit source]

    A philosophical stance that combines elements of transcendental philosophy with realism, examining the conditions of possibility for knowledge and the existence of an objective reality.

    Truth-value Link Realism[edit | edit source]

    A position criticized by Michael Dummett, which asserts that truth values are linked to the objective existence of facts in the world.

    Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Objective Reality[edit | edit source]

    Realism asserts that there exists an objective reality external to human minds. This reality exists independently and is not contingent on our perceptions or beliefs.

    Independence of Universals[edit | edit source]

    Realists often argue for the existence of universals—abstract entities or qualities that are shared among multiple instances of a particular kind. These universals are considered to exist independently of individual instances.

    Common Sense and Empirical Observation[edit | edit source]

    Realism often aligns with common sense and empirical observation. It emphasizes the importance of relying on our senses and empirical evidence to understand the world. Causation and Natural Laws: Realists typically believe in causation and the existence of natural laws governing the physical world. They assert that events have objective causes, and these causes operate within a framework of consistent laws.

    Scientific Realism[edit | edit source]

    In the context of philosophy of science, realism is associated with scientific realism. This perspective contends that scientific theories aim to provide true descriptions of the world, and the entities postulated by these theories (atoms, quarks, etc.) are real and exist independently. Antirelativism: Realism stands in opposition to various forms of relativism, which suggest that truth or reality is subjective and varies across individuals or cultures. Realists argue for an objective basis for truth.

    Truth Correspondence[edit | edit source]

    Realists often hold to a correspondence theory of truth. According to this view, a belief is true if it corresponds to an actual state of affairs in the external world.

    Critical of Idealism[edit | edit source]

    Realism contrasts with idealism, which posits that reality is fundamentally mental or dependent on perception. Realists reject the idea that the mind or consciousness is the primary source of reality.

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

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