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    (Redirected from Russian Nihilism)


    Nihilism is a philosophical position that that rejects generally accepted or fundamental aspects of human existence, such as knowledge, morality, or meaning. Nihilists deny the concepts of “morality,” “values,” “truth,” and “existence” itself, believing that these are false constructs and that nothing exists objectively. Nietzsche distinguishes passive nihilism (rejecting structures without alternatives) from active nihilism (creating new values). Nihilism challenges politics, religion, and society, often criticized for neglecting ethics and the search for meaning in human life by existentialists.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Optimistic Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Optimistic Nihilism is a metaphysical and social stance which advocates that since there is no specific external goal, the individual can determine his own goal based on his own desires.Note that Optimistic Nihilism, strictly speaking, is to be differentiated from Anti-Nihilism and Passive Nihilism.

    Cosmic Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Cosmic Nihilism is the stance that reality or the cosmos is either wholly or significantly unintelligible and that it provides no foundation for human aims and principles. Particularly, it may regard the cosmos as distinctly hostile or indifferent to humanity. It is often related to both epistemological and existential nihilism, as well as cosmicism.

    Black Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Epistemological Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Epistemological Nihilism is a philosophical position that holds that knowledge and truth are either unattainable or impossible to achieve. According to epistemological nihilism, there is no way to know anything with certainty, and all claims to knowledge or truth are inherently flawed or uncertain.

    Moral Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Moral Nihilism is a philosophical position that holds that moral values and ethical principles are baseless, meaningless, or non-existent. According to moral nihilism, there are no objective or universal moral standards or values, and ethical principles are simply human inventions or social constructs. This means that actions cannot be morally right or wrong, good or evil, and that there is no ultimate purpose or goal to morality.

    Existential Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Existential Nihilism is a philosophical position that holds that life has no intrinsic meaning, purpose, or value. According to existential nihilism, human existence is fundamentally absurd and without objective meaning or significance. This can lead to feelings of despair, alienation, and anxiety, as individuals struggle to find a sense of purpose or direction in a meaningless world.

    Metaphysical Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Metaphysical Nihilism is a philosophical position that holds that there is no ultimate reality or metaphysical foundation to the universe. According to metaphysical nihilism, reality is ultimately meaningless, non-existent, or unknowable, and any attempts to understand or explain it are futile.

    Political Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Political Nihilism is a philosophical position that holds that traditional political institutions and beliefs are fundamentally flawed and without value. According to political nihilism, there is no inherent meaning or purpose to political ideologies, systems, or structures, and any attempts to create or enforce them are ultimately futile.

    Political nihilism rejects traditional political institutions and beliefs, considering them fundamentally flawed and without value. It emphasizes the rejection of authority and hierarchy and challenges traditional notions of power, identity, and social structures. Political nihilism is often linked to anarchism and radical political movements, as well as postmodernism and critical theory.

    Queer Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Queer Nihilism, also called Gender Nihilism, is a philosophy advocating for the eradication of gender from society, rooted in anti-humanist queer feminism. It posits that the self is solely defined by social structures, with gender being an instrument of power. Queer nihilism aims to dismantle gender-based oppression by rejecting identity categories and advocating for the destruction of gender as an institution.

    In this form of nihilism it is believed that the self is entirely defined by social structure, and that at the core it is nothing until it interacts with said social structure. Queer nihilism focuses on how this philosophy applies to gender specifically. Queer nihilism declares that gender is an instrument created by institutions of power, and believes that the best/only way to get rid of the chains of gender-based oppression is to have the instrument destroyed. It seeks to combat the need for an identity, and believes that identity categories are simply not worth it.

    Queer nihilism does not seek to restrict people's expressions, or prevent them from doing what they want with their bodies. These expressions would not disappear but queer nihilism would mean that none of these gendered traits would be gendered. People would be free to exist in whatever way they do, without the chains of misogyny, transmisogyny, and heterosexism. Categories like "man", "woman", "non-binary", "cis", and "trans" would cease to exist and would no longer make sense as categories. As there is no longer gender, there would no longer be gender minorities, and therefore no longer the possibility of gender based oppression.

    Religious Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Religious Nihilism is a philosophical position that life on earth is fundamentally pointless. According to Religious Nihilism, secular values and desires are also pointless and must be abandoned in order to gain transcendence in afterlife.

    Christian Antimoralism[edit | edit source]

    Christian Antimoralism holds that God is not a moralist and that biblical references to sin, demons, good and evil are not be understand as moral qualities but rather existential conditions. Christian Antimoralism is opposed to moralism utilized my organized religion. Also, theistic amoralism can be seen as the belief that God is a morally transcendent being, transcending human ethical categories, thus describing God exclusively from the spiritual side, ignoring ethical aspects.

    Another form of antimoralism within Christian thought is called Antinomianism. Antinomianism is exemplified in certain gnostic and quasi-gnostic groups which emphasised the inner spiritual life and thus rejected morality and works. Other forms of antinomianism can be found in radical protestant groups which believe that, thanks to the free grace of Christ, all forms of morality and good deeds can be rejected.

    Russian Nihilism[edit | edit source]

    Russian Nihilism is a variant of Nihilism. Russian Nihilists did not argue that there's nothing worth following, but rather that the status-quo values in Russia is oppressive and meaningless, thus the values must be destroyed and be replaced with new ones. Sergey Nechayev who was the figurehead of Russian Nihilist Movement, in instance, argued that nihilists must abolish humanity (as a value), family, love, names and ect.

    The movement had shared many left-wing ideas such as that from Socialism, civically variable, agrarian, and revolutionary anti-monarchist movement from the Russian Empire in the late 19th century. It was primarily inspired by the thought of the Young Hegelians and Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin. Ideas varied wildly between theoreticians. Some supported Anarchism ( Bakunin), some supported Republicanism ( Chernyshevsky), and some supported what was perceived as Totalitarianism ( Nechayev). One thing these theorists all shared was an opposition to traditional values, monarchism, and religion. Another thing to note is that some nihilists were greatly influenced by Russian antinihilist literature such as Ivan Turgenevs "fathers and sons" or Fyodor Dostoevskys work and aspired to be like the nihilist characters in those stories.

    Drewermann Theology[edit | edit source]

    Criticism[edit | edit source]

    Criticism of Nihilism or just Anti-Nihilism is a critique of Nihilism. Anti-nihilism believes that life has an objective meaning and everything is driven by a higher purpose. Anti-nihilism is often idealistic, religious and hopeful.

    Personality[edit | edit source]

    Nihilism is extremely unemotional and does not believe in anything. He is very indifferent and apatheic.

    How to Draw[edit | edit source]

    Flag of Nihilism Flag of Nihilism

    Relationships[edit | edit source]

    Relationships do not matter anyway.

    Gallery[edit | edit source]

    Portraits[edit | edit source]

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Nihilism didn't have sense for this, but he cares about..?

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

    Navigation[edit | edit source]

    1. Due to their rejection of moral norms, objective values, truths and meanings, radical skepticism or pessimism those thinkers were accused of nihilism, even though they denounced or opposed nihilism.
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