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    “To one who has faith, no explanation is necessary. To one without faith, no explanation is possible.”

    St. Thomas Aquinas

    Thomism is a catholic school of philosophy developed by the Catholic Dominican monk Saint Thomas Aquinas. Thomism is often credited for synthesizing the philosophy and metaphysics of Aristotelianism with Catholic Theology and had significant influence over catholic philosophy and political thought throughout history.

    Philosophical Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    The Five Ways for Proving God's Existence[edit | edit source]

    One of the most known parts of Thomist thought is its proof of God's existence. Applying Aristotelian logic Thomism tries to argue that the existence of God can be proven using reasoning. The 5 Proofs are:

    1. Argument of unmoved mover - Since all things in the universe are in movement, there has to be some kind of first mover that introduced movement into the world.
    2. Argument of first cause - Since the universe exists and nothing comes from nothing, then there has to be some kind of eternal first cause that always was and could create everything else.
    3. Argument from contingency - Since it could be possible for the universe to never come into existence, there has to be some kind of reason why it does exist.
    4. Argument from degree - Since we can observe different degrees of love, goodness, truth, and nobility, there must exist some kind of purely perfect goodness that is the source of all goodness.
    5. Teleological argument - Since we can see that the world is very harmonious and ruled by non-chaotic laws, this means it must be a result of intelligent design.

    Goodness and The Problem of Evil[edit | edit source]

    Thomism tries to explain how is it possible for both omnipotent and benevolent God to exist alongside all the evil in the world. Thomism explains this by saying that evil itself does not exist but rather is a name we give to the lack of goodness. Just like a cold is merely a lack of heat rather than a separate phenomenon so is evil. Goodness is just like heat in this case, and God is like a fire, being a most pure manifestation of goodness.

    Simple and Complex Entities[edit | edit source]

    Thomism believes that we can classify entities into groups of simple and complex entities, as well as material and immaterial. What is material is potential (yet to be actualized) while immaterial entities are actual (which actualize matter). Entities are called composite entities when they are composed of both form and matter; these include every material entity (as pure unactualized matter does not exist, as it is pure actuality), including humans (whose form is the soul). On the other hand, entities are called simple when their essence is not composed of the union between form and matter, but is only formal. Angels, in Thomistic theology, are immaterial and simple (not composed of form and matter), but not absolutely simple; there is still composition in angels: the distinction between essence and existence, which Thomism differentiates. Only God is absolutely simple: not only is His essence not composite, but His simple essence is identical to His existence, thus He calls Himself "I Am"; His essence is existence.

    Ordo[edit | edit source]

    Thomism believes that entities in existence can be placed into a universal hierarchy of entities he calls Ordo.

    1. At the top of the hierarchy is God, who is the source of Ordo itself.
    2. Beneath God is the Heavenly sphere
    3. Beneath that exists Humanity
    4. Then other animals
    5. Plants
    6. At the bottom of the hierarchy is a simple matter, consisting of classical elements: Fire, Earth, Water, and Air

    Political Beliefs[edit | edit source]

    Laws of God and Men[edit | edit source]

    Thomism believes that there exist 4 types of laws in the world.

    1. Lex Aeterna - The eternal law is the universal law of existence known only to God who created it and uses it to rule the creation.
    2. Lex Naturalis - The Natural law is a universal law of nature that rules over everyone equally, those laws can be understood through reasonable deduction.
    3. Lex Humana - Human laws are laws created and enforced by human lawmakers. A good Lex Humana should never contradict Lex Naturalis.
    4. Lex Divina - God's law, is a religious and moral law that is given to mankind through divine revelation.

    Social Structure[edit | edit source]

    1. Optimates - The Feudal lords and Clergy stand at the top of the social hierarchy. According to Thomism, the Optimates class should rule with wisdom, virtue, and morality for the good of their subjects, and in exchange, they can enjoy the privilege of rulership.
    2. Populus Honorabilis - Wealthy commoner class. According to Thomism, wealth by itself is nothing wrong and people have full right to use their god-given intellect to acquire it and be able to live comfortably as long as they still adhere to morality and Christian virtues like Generosity.
    3. Vilis Populus - The part of the populace that does not possess great wealth or intellect. They form the majority of the peasantry and worker classes.

    Ownership, Bona Superflua and Communitas Perfecta[edit | edit source]

    While Thomism believes that the institution of ownership is natural and ordained by God it also stresses the importance of Generosity and the need for sharing. While the wealthy have the right to live comfortably with the wealth they acquired through intellect, they also have the duty of sharing that wealth with the less fortunate for the sake of social solidarity, that duty is called Bona Superflua. This system of sharing and social integralist solidarity is the foundation for the creation of "Communitas Perfecta" - The Perfect Community, in which different social classes cooperate for the common welfare of all people. This Thomist line of thought served as the foundation for the doctrines of Distributism, File:Integralismf.png Integralism, and File:Corporatism.png Christian Corporatism, as well as influence on the File:Orlib.png Ordo-Liberal economy of File:CDem.png Christian Democracy.

    Variants[edit | edit source]

    Phenomenological Thomism[edit | edit source]

    Phenomenological Thomism is a belief that connects Husserlian phenomenology and Thomas Aquinas's Thomism. The most important representatives are Edith Stein, John Paul II and it's students, mostly from John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin. Mostly it translates for their students too.

    The basic beliefs of phenomenological thomism are:

    • It draws on the two philosophical methods: phenomenological and the scholastic method;
    • It bases on the principle of the integrity of knowledge available in the various relevant sciences.
    • It preserves the autonomous right of each discipline to offer its data according to the best method adopted in it and its verifying.
    • It's autonomy applies specifically to theology with its principles of depositum fidei and certitudo fidei, because theology offers unique sets of truths about the world that are not found in any other academic discipline. In the case of theology, the principle of autonomy means that its truths are presented as results achieved by an appropriate specialist in a given field. Recognizing points and, the phenomenological Thomist - trying to collect data from theology - will adhere to the leading authorities of Christianity. However, when they are not relevant, theological data need not be implemented into phenomenological-Thomistic studies.
    • It doesn't reject the idea of a metadiscipline - philosophy - whose special role is to integrate, compare and examine the premises, conclusions, assumptions and methods of other disciplines. As such, philosophy plays a unifying and dialogic role among the sciences.
    • It understood in this way leads to the amplification of reason, desired by some leading theologians and philosophers of our times. The need for an integral view of science became the focus of phenomenologists' interests, especially in Husserl's 1936 work Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie. Phenomenological Thomism continues the tradition of attempts to integrate knowledge available in various academic disciplines by using both leading phenomenological research methods (transcendental and eidetic reduction) and Thomistic approaches, while remaining in dialogue with the results of relevant sciences, including the exact sciences.

    John Paul II Thought[edit | edit source]

    John Paul II Thought is a philosophical thought of Polish pope John Paul II also called as Karol Wojtyła.

    Przywarianism[edit | edit source]

    Przywarianism is a philosophy of German-Polish theologician Erich Przywara.

    Steinianism[edit | edit source]

    Steinianism is a philosophy of German nun Edith Stein.

    How to Draw[edit | edit source]

    1. Draw a ball and color it black
    2. Add a white Greek letter Phi (Φ) in the middle, with its upper part growing into a Cross of the Dominican Order
    3. Add two eyes
    Color Name HEX RGB
    Black #141414 20, 20, 20
    White #FFFFFF 255, 255, 255

    Relations[edit | edit source]

    Friends[edit | edit source]

    Frenemies[edit | edit source]

    • The Greek Church - Brothers! Why must you divide our holy church?
    • Clerical Fascism - You claim to work in the name of Christ but you rule with fear and without virtues.
    • Islam - False religion but some of your philosophers influenced me.

    Enemies[edit | edit source]

    Quotes[edit | edit source]

    “All the efforts of the human mind cannot exhaust the essence of a single fly.”

    St. Thomas Aquinas

    Further Information[edit | edit source]

    Wikipedia[edit | edit source]

    Sources[edit | edit source]

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